Friday, 30 November 2018


Born on 31 December 1720, Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria Stuart was the grandson of King James II of Great Britain, and should have been heir to the British throne.

Should have, but wasn’t. Because the British government got rid of James II in what came to be known as the Glorious Revolution of 1688. He and his wife Mary of Modena and their baby son James Francis Edward, (Charles Edward’s father) fled to France and settled ultimately in Rome. Whereupon the British offered the throne to James II’s daughter Mary (by his first wife Anne Hyde) and her husband William of Orange, who was James’ nephew.


James II’s big crime was to convert to Catholicism. By marrying his second wife Mary who was also Catholic, sent the British establishment into panic. No-one in England wanted a return to the fanatical Catholicism of a century previously, where Mary Tudor tried to bring the Inquisition to Britain and brought in a reign of terror. Not for nothing was Mary Tudor called Bloody Mary! Hundreds were burnt at the stake during her five year reign because they refused to convert to the Catholic faith. So James’ openly becoming a Catholic and marrying a Catholic set English hearts into meltdown.

As a result, he struggled against Parliament for the whole of his four year reign. The birth of his son, James Francis further upset the English establishment. Now there could be a succession of Catholic kings! That could not be allowed to happen. While they could tolerate James’ conversion to Catholicism if he behaved himself, they could not and would not put up with a Catholic succession. So they got rid of James II in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, putting William and Mary on the throne.

In 1701, James II died and his son James Francis claimed the British throne as James III of England and Ireland, and James VIII of Scotland. Not that it mattered. The establishment had no intention of allowing him the throne, despite the fact that he had the backing of his cousin Louis XIV of France and many Jacobite supporters in Britain. Perhaps he thought that when the throne became vacant in 1702, with no offspring of William and Mary, he would be given the throne. Not so. The government had foreseen that possibility and James Francis found himself out of the picture by the Act of Settlement which prohibited any Catholic sitting on the British throne.

Instead, the throne was given to Anne, James Francis’ half sister. Inconveniently, and despite having eleven children and many miscarriages, all Anne’s children pre-deceased her and when she died in 1714, Parliament sought a protestant heir to the throne. Disregarding James Francis, and no less than fifty other people who might have had greater claim, they settled on George of Hanover, a Protestant.

George was the great grandson of King James I through his daughter, Elizabeth of Bohemia.

In 1715, James Francis, now a man of twenty-seven came to Britain and attempted to retrieve the throne in the Jacobite Rising of that year, with no success. Narrowly avoiding capture he fled back to the Continent, where he married Maria Clementina Sobieska, granddaughter of the Polish King John III of Beuburg.

They had two sons, Charles Edward Stuart, also known as Bonnie Prince Charlie, and Henry Benedict Stuart who became a Cardinal.

Understandably, both James Francis and his eldest son Charles believed the throne of Great Britain belonged to them by right. James even called himself James III of England and VIII of Scotland. With James becoming too old for the venture, Charles took up the cause, and aged twenty-four sailed for Scotland in 1745, raising an army from the clans of Scotland with a view to eventually marching on London and claiming the throne.

Charles Edward was indeed ‘bonny’. A good-looking young man, he had the ability to charm and to lead. When he arrived in Scotland the clans readily came to his call, and he had a formidable army. However, promised help from the French did not materialise. After some initial successes, his plans came to an abrupt end at the battle of Culloden in April 1746, where the government forces under the Duke of Cumberland, second son of King George II, routed the Scots in a devastating defeat.

For Charles, there was just one thing to do—flee!

And flee he did. His subsequent escape from the clutches of the British with the help of a Scottish lass is the subject of my book, Over the Sea to Skye, to be published soon.

Saturday, 21 October 2017

Crime and Punishment in Britain in the 18th and early 19th centuries.

We have all heard how in previous centuries a person could be hanged on the slightest pretext.  What crimes merited transportation? Or death? Or corporal punishment? Quite by accident, I came across the following information.

“Death Without the Benefit of Clergy”
 There were more than 160 offences which warranted the death penalty, the sentence being “death without the benefit of Clergy.” This term was attached to many sentences. What exactly was ‘Benefit of Clergy’?

Basically, Benefit of Clergy, privilegium clericale, came about in 1274 under Edward I in response to the high esteem in which the ruling classes held the church. It meant that: 
1.      Places consecrated to religious duties were exempted from criminal arrest. Hence, the idea that a criminal could claim sanctuary in a church.
2.      Clergymen were exempt from being brought before a secular judge in certain cases.
Later, anyone who could read could claim benefit of clergy. If a literate man were condemned to death, the bishop of the diocese had the option of claiming him as a clerk, and find him a place among the clergy as he saw fit. The prisoner at the bar was given a Latin book in black Gothic characters by the ordinary, from which he must read one or two verses. If the ordinary declared him to be ‘legit ut clericus’, that is ‘He reads like a clerk’, the offender was burnt in the hand. If he could not read, he suffered death.
Henry VII restricted the privilege in 1489, and in 1512 was abolished by Henry VIII with regard to murder and other serious crimes.
So what crimes merited the death penalty?

High Treason
High Treason was considered the worst civil crime, and was divided into seven different categories:
1.      Compassing (i.e. bringing about, scheming or plotting) or imagining the death of the king, queen, or heir apparent.
2.      Levying war against the king in his realm.
3.      Adhering to the king’s enemies and giving them aid in the realm or elsewhere.
4.      Slaying the king’s chancellor, or judge, in the execution of their offices.
5.      Violating the queen, the eldest daughter of the king, or the wife of the heir apparent, or eldest son.
6.      Counterfeiting the king’s great seal, or the privy seal.
7.      Counterfeiting the king’s money, or bringing false money into the kingdom.
The punishment for High Treason was:
“That the offender be drawn to the gallows, on the ground or pavement; that he be hanged by the neck, and then cut down alive; that his entrails be taken out and burned while he is yet alive; that his head be cut off; that his body be divided into four parts; and that his head and quarters be at the King’s disposal.”
However, women were only to be drawn and hanged, although previously, they were burned at the stake.

Petty Treason
Petty Treason was the offence of:
1.      A servant killing his master.
2.      A wife killing her husband.
3.      A person killing a prelate.
The sentence was death.

 Two kinds of felonies – public and private.
Public felonies were state felonies relating to:
1.      The coin of the realm.
2.      The king and his Counsellors.
3.      Soldiers and marines.
4.      Embezzling public property.
5.      Riot and sedition.
6.      Escape from prison.
7.      Revenue and trade.
Private felonies:
1.      Murder. When a murderer had been executed, his body was handed over for dissection, and his property was forfeited to the State (as was the property of a suicide).
2.      Manslaughter. A person who was guilty of manslaughter had his hand burned and his possessions forfeited.
3.      Sodomy. Punishment: Death.
4.      Rape. Punishment: Death.
5.      Forcible marriage. ‘Forcible marriage or defilement of women’ was an offence where the property was considered more important than chastity. It was a felony without the benefit of clergy to take away for lucre any woman having lands or goods, or being an heir apparent to an estate by force or against her will and to marry or to defile her. However, the forcible marriage or defilement of a woman without an estate was not punishable at all! Obviously wealth had a higher moral virtue!
6.      Polygamy. A statute of James I declared Polygamy to be a felony, but not excluded from benefit of clergy, so offenders were not subject to the death penalty, but were transported, although there are no records of polygamists arriving in New South Wales.
7.      Maiming. ‘Maiming, cutting the tongue, putting out the eyes of any of the King’s liege people, slitting the nose, cutting off a nose or lip, or cutting off or disabling any limb or member by malice forethought and by ling in wait with an intention to maim or disfigure’ was called ‘Mayhem’, and was subject to death.
8.      Simple Larceny. Divided into grand larceny and petit larceny. Grand larceny, punishable by death and the forfeiture of property, was “the felonious taking and carry[ing] away the mere personal property or goods of another above the value of twelve-pence [1 shilling].’ Petit larceny was taking of goods valued at less than twelve pence, and was punishable by imprisonment, whipping, or transportation, and the forfeiture of goods and chattels.
9.      ‘Mixt larceny’ was the taking of a man or goods from his house. If a person was previously threatened or assaulted, the crime was termed Robbery.
10.  Piracy
11.  Arson. Punishable by death without the benefit of clergy if someone set fire to corn, stacks of straw, hay, or wood, or rescuing any such offender; setting fire to a coalmine, windmill, watermill or other mill, or pulling down the same; burning any ship; burning the king’s ships of war, afloat or building, the dock-yards or any of the buildings, arsenals or stores therein. Threatening by anonymous or fictitious letters to burn houses, barns etc. But if someone burned their own house without injuring anyone else, it was only counted as a misdemeanour and punished by fine, imprisonment or the pillory.
12.  Burglary. Punishable by death for both perpetrators and those who were accessories before the event.

The following “domestic aggravations” or larceny were punishable with death without the benefit of clergy: Larcenies above the value of twelve pence:
1.      In a church or chapel, with or without violence or breaking the same.
2.      In a booth or tent, a market or fair, in the daytime or in the night, by violence or breaking the same, the owner or some of his family being therein.
3.      By robbing a dwelling in the daytime, any person being therein; in a dwelling-house by day or by night, without breaking, any person being therein and put in fear.
Larcenies to the value of five shillings:
1.      By breaking any house, outhouse, shop or warehouse belonging in the daytime.
2.      Privately stealing goods, wares, or merchandise in any shop, warehouse, coach house, or stable by day or night, though the same was not broken open, and though no person was therein.
Larcenies to the value of forty shillings [£2] from a dwelling house or its outhouses, although the same be not broken, and whether a person is therein or not, unless committed upon their masters by apprentices under the age of fifteen years.
Hanging outside Newgate - Wikimedia

Other Principle Capital Offences
1.      Stealing an heiress
2.      Forgery of deeds, bonds, etc.
3.      Bankrupts not surrendering, or concealing their effects.
4.      Highway robbery.
5.      Stealing bank notes, bonds, etc.
6.      Stealing linen from bleaching grounds, or destroying the same.
7.      Maiming or killing cattle maliciously.
8.      Stealing horses, cattle, or sheep.
9.      Shooting at a revenue officer, or any other person.
10.  Breaking down the head of a fish-pond, whereby fish may be lost
11.  Cutting down trees in an avenue, garden, etc.
12.  Cutting down river or sea banks, or hop binds.
13.  Taking reward for helping another to stolen goods.
14.  Returning from Transportation, or being at large in the Kingdom after sentence.
15.  Stabbing a person unarmed, or not having a weapon drawn, if he dies within six months.
16.  Concealing the birth of a bastard child.
17.  Sending threatening letters.
18.  Riots by twelve or more, and not dispersing in an hour after proclamation.
19.  Stealing woollen cloth from tenter ground.
20.  Stealing from a ship in distress.
21.  Challenging jurors above 20 in capital felonies or standing mute.
22.  Selling cottons with forged stamps.
23.  Deer stealing, second offence.
24.  Uttering counterfeit money.
25.  Prisoners under Insolvent Act guilty of perjury.
26.  Destroying silk or velvet in the loom, or the tools for manufacturing same, or destroying woollen goods, racks, or tools, or entering a house for that purpose.
27.  servants purloining their master’s goods, value 40 shillings.
28.  Personating bail, or acknowledging fines or judgements in another’s name.
29.  Escape by breaking prison;
30.  Sacrilege.
31.  Attempts to kill Privy Counsellors, etc.
32.  Smuggling by persons armed or assembling armed for that purpose.
33.  Robbery of mail.
34.  Destroying turnpikes or bridges, gates, weighing engines, locks, sluices, engines for draining marshes, etc.
35.  Mutiny.
36.  Desertion.
37.  Soldiers or sailors enlisting into foreign service.

Crimes not punishable by death
‘Single Felonies’ were punished by transportation, whipping, imprisonment, the pillory and hard labour in houses of correction according to the offence:
1.      Grand larceny, which was every sort of theft above the value of one shilling, not otherwise distinguished.
2.      Receiving or buying stolen goods, jewels and plate.
3.      Ripping or stealing lead, iron, copper, etc., or buying or receiving the same.
4.      Stealing or receiving ore from black lead mines.
5.      Stealing from furnished lodgings.
6.      Setting fire to underwood.
7.      Stealing letters, or destroying a letter or packet, advancing the postage and secreting the money.
8.      Embezzling naval stores.
9.      Petty larcenies or thefts under one shilling.
10.  Assaulting with intent to rob.
11.  Aliens returning after being ordered out of the kingdom.
12.  Stealing fish from a pond or river, fishing in enclosed ponds, or buying stolen fish.
13.  Stealing roots, trees, or plants of the value of 5 shillings or destroying them.
14.  Stealing children with their apparel.
15.  Bigamy, or marrying more wives or husbands than one.
16.  Assaulting or cutting, or burning clothes.
17.  Counterfeiting the copper coin.
18.  Solemnising marriage clandestinely.
19.  Manslaughter.
20.  Cutting or stealing timber trees.
21.  Stealing a shroud out of a grave.
22.  Watermen carrying too many passengers in the Thames, if any drowned.
23.  Perjury.
24.  Frauds by cheating or swindling.
25.  Conspiring to injure others.
26.  Stealing dead bodies.
27.  Stealing growing cabbages, turnips, etc.
28.  Cutting and stealing wood.
29.  Robbing orchards and gardens.
30.  Stealing deer from forests.
31.  Stealing dogs.
32.  Making and selling fireworks and squibs.
33.  Throwing the same on fire about the streets.
34.  Uttering base money.
35.  Embezzlements in the woollen, silk or other manufactures.
36.  Combinations and conspiracies for raising the price of wages.
37.  Keeping bawdy and disorderly houses.
38.  Escaping out of House of Correction.
39.  Committing the same offence, after being once punished as rogues and vagabonds.

Because the punishments were OTT to the crimes, often petty crimes went unpunished, and punishments when handed down were often not carried out.
Treaties on the Police of the Metropolis by Dr. Colquhoun in 1780 states:
“It generally happens in the metropolis that out of from 2,000 to 2,500 prisoners who are tried for different crimes in the various Courts of Justice, above five sixth parts are for larcenies, acts of vagrancy and smaller offences, where the Benefit of Clergy either attaches or does not apply at all. The major part are, of course, returned upon Society, after a short imprisonment, or some corporal punishment, so frequently to renew their depredations on the public. But a vast proportion are always acquitted.”
In the year 1795, out of 1,894 prisoners tried at the Old Bailey and the different assizes in the country, (not taking the smaller courts into account), 854 were acquitted because of no prosecutors.
“According to the present system, out of about two hundred and upwards who are, upon an average every year, doomed to suffer the punishment of death, four-fifths or more are generally pardoned, either on condition of being transported, or of going into his Majesty’s service, and not seldom, without any condition at all. Hence it is that, calculating on all the difference chances, encouragement to commit crimes, actually arise[s] out of the system intended for their prevention – first from the hope of avoiding detection and apprehension; secondly of escaping conviction, from the means to vitiate and suborn the evidence; thirdly, from the mercy of the jury, in considering the punishment too severe; and fourthly, from the interest of persons of rank or consideration applying for the interference of Royal mercy, by pardons.”
So the 18th century malefactor might get away with it. 
Or he/she might not.

Evelyn Tidman is the author of four historical novels.

Saturday, 27 May 2017

PMS – Pre-Menstrual Syndrome – How to cope

PMS—premenstrual syndrome—is a blight on the lives of many women of reproductive age and their families. I know, because I was one of them.

For a lucky few, the symptoms are hardly noticeable. For others it is like world war three, turning a usually stable woman into a psychotic manic depressive for one or two weeks every month. Characterised by excessive mood swings, temper tantrums, unreasonableness, depression, PMS has been responsible for women attacking their partners and children and even committing suicide and murder. So although men may snigger at it, and others take it with a pinch of salt as an excuse for bad behaviour, it is not a subject to be taken lightly.

Worse, many women have no idea that it is their monthly cycle which is affecting them so badly. Even when I had been diagnosed with PMS I still did not recognise that the reason I was feeling so bad was because of those pesky hormones. Under the influence of PMS I have smashed a window with my bare fist, attacked my husband, nearly killed my 5 year old daughter, considered killing myself. You get the picture.

So what changed my life?

Surprisingly, it was a book by Adelle Davis written in the 1970s called Let’s Get Well. Working on the principle that many of our common ailments are caused by bad nutrition, she uses research to suggest that a lack of certain vitamins and minerals can lead to all sorts of physical problems. With regard to PMS (or premenstrual tension as she calls it) she cites a study (page 221) which showed "starting approximately ten days prior to menstruation, when the ovaries are the least active, the blood calcium drops steadily and progressively. Such a calcium decrease results in premenstrual tension, nervousness, headaches, insomnia, and mental depression . . . Crimes of violence committed by women take place mostly during this period." She went on to advise taking tablets containing calcium and magnesium, and a vitamin D supplement.

So I thought, ‘What have I got to lose?’ Out I went and bought calcium and magnesium tablets, and they also contained vitamin D. Within an hour or two of taking them, the symptoms disappeared. It was as if a fog suddenly cleared, and I became normal. I felt better, I no longer had uncontrollable rages. Wow! Flushed with this success, I reported back to the doctor, who laughed. (She'd been no help in any case!) That was back in the eighties. Today, the benefits of calcium and magnesium in treating PMS are more widely recognised. And magnesium seems to be the real goodie here.

“Zinc, calcium, and magnesium are three of the most important minerals essential for good health. Magnesium aids in the absorption of calcium by the body, while zinc actively supports the body’s immune system. Women of all ages benefit immensely from the intake of magnesium. Besides keeping osteoporosis at bay, magnesium health benefits in women include relief from symptoms of menopause and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). It also minimizes the risk of premature labor.” –
So how much calcium should we take? Doctor Adelle Davis recommended that we should take half magnesium to calcium. So, if we take a supplement*, it should contain, say, 400 mg. calcium and 200 mg. magnesium. It might contain more or less, but the ratio should be the same.

Not to be overlooked is the benefit of Vitamin B6. “The B6 vitamin is needed for proper brain development and function and to make the hormones serotonin and norepinephrine which affect mood.” – 

The NIH [National Institutes of Health] also considers vitamin B6 "possibly effective" for alleviating upset stomach and vomiting during pregnancy, symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (including breast pain and depression) and behavioral disorders in children with low levels of serotonin (a brain chemical involved in regulating mood).”

In Britain, the government have recommended no more than 50 mg of B6 daily.

If you are taking any medication or have other health issues, consult a doctor before taking supplements.

As for me, I take a calcium and magnesium tablet every day, as well as B6, even though I am long past the menopause. Why? Because I find even now that if I don’t, within a day or two, I start to go down, become irritable, and depressed.

My mother also suffered from severe osteoporosis, and two of my daughters showed very low bone density on a scan. Meanwhile, my bone density showed 120%, way above what it needed to be, which is excellent news.

So benefits all round.

Of course, not every woman responds to the same therapy. In the event of severe depression, seek the help of a qualified doctor.


* Just so you know, I found one ‘own brand’ calcium/magnesium supplement from a well-known British health food chain to be totally ineffective. 

Evelyn Tidman is the author of historical novels, available on Amazon.

Monday, 27 February 2017

More about formatting books for print or Ebooks: Back to front Apostrophes

As writers formatting our own books, we can fall foul all sorts of hiccups. One of them is apostrophes facing right instead of left! It spoils the book for me as a reader and screams ‘self published.’ What we all want is nice professional text. So how can we fix those pesky apostrophes.

Now I am not talking about those apostrophes which denote possessiveness, as opposed to plurals. There are other excellent notes on those should you need to look them up. No, I’m talking about those denoting missing letters. And not to be forgotten are the speech marks.

As everyone using Word knows, apostrophes do not always do what you want them to. For example, in historical speech, or in colloquial speech, a writer might want to drop an initial letter, as in ’tis for it is, or ’ard for hard. Each time an initial apostrophe needs to be added. The trouble with Word is that if you put an initial apostrophe at the beginning of a word, it comes out back to front, eg.:

            ‘Tis raining ‘ard tonight.

How can we turn the apostrophe around?

Depending on which version of Word you are using it might be a simple matter. Such as holding down Control and hitting the apostrophe key twice to get a left-facing apostrophe.

            ’Tis raining ’ard tonight.

Another method is to put in two apostrophes. Because two together will face each other.

            ‘’Tis raining ‘’ard tonight.

Then go back and delete the unwanted one. Long winded but effective.

A third method is to go to Insert > Symbol > and scroll through until you find what you want, and click on it, click insert. Also long-winded. But from this menu, before you click insert, you can make a permanent code for this symbol by going to shortcut key. Add a code of your choice, in this case control + ’ + ’. (Word automatically adds the + and , symbols. ) Click assign.

By this means (and using a different code) you can add any symbol you like. For example, in my book Gentleman of Fortune, the heroine was called LĂșcia. So I needed to access the accent mark quickly. I put that also on the apostrophe key, and made it control plus one tap on the key. So I would type:

L[control + ’]ucia.
When the ‘u’ was hit the accent would appear above it. (In the end after about fifty thousand times of doing this, I decided to put LĂșcia on the autotext. Wish I’d thought of it sooner!)

Finally, a word about dashes—that is the two –  (small dashes) together to make a long dash—If your version of Word doesn’t do it, it is found on Insert > autotext > auto format as you type; check the appropriate box. This looks nice and professional when you have a printed book.

However, suppose you want to say at the end of a paragraph:

            I cannot stay, I really can’t—

If you just type the sentence, when you hit space, or return for the paragraph it will come out like this:

            I cannot stay, I really can’t--

No long dash. You need to add a full stop, apostrophe, etc., to the end, or a letter then space, you will get the desired effect:

            I cannot stay, I really can’t--n plus space

Of course you need to delete the letter [n] or full stop, or whatever, and the dash will remain a long dash. Job done.

Simple when you know how!

Evelyn Tidman is the author of four historical novels.
Available on Amazon at

Tuesday, 22 November 2016

How Could 17th Century Exiles Receive Money from England?

As a writer, there are times when a character in a historical novel needs to get their hands on some money. In seventeenth century Britain, how did they do it?

I came across this when I researched life for the exiles in the court of Charles II in Holland and France. Many were running out of money, and Edward Hyde writes of the generosity of the Princess Royal (i.e., Mary, sister to Charles II, wife of William I of Orange) in providing a house for him, rent free:

During that time the Princess Royal had, out of her own princely nature and inclination, cultivated by the civility and offices of the Lady Stanhope, conferred a very seasonable obligation upon him [that is, Edward Hyde] , by assigning a house that was in her disposal at Breda to his wife and children, who thereupon left Antwerp, and without the payment of any house rent, were more conveniently, because more frugally, settled in their new mansion at Breda.

Which prompted me to ask: How did he survive? Where did he get money to live on? Was someone sending him money? If so, how? And not just Hyde, but all the exiles. Some struggled in poverty.

Roger L’Estrange, while he was in Newgate, needed money to pay the jailer,  and for his food and lodging. When he slipped out of Newgate with ‘the privity of [his] keeper’ where did he get the money to survive? He had no inheritance yet, but he did have an allowance from his family in Norfolk. But he did not go to Norfolk, he went to Kent. So how did his allowance reach him?

A glance at the banking system in 17th century England might be useful.

The first provincial bank was opened in 1650, two years after Roger was in Kent, and it was not until 1694 that the Bank of England was founded. Until then, the prototype of banking was through goldsmiths. They had acquired much gold following the dissolution of the monasteries. However many goldsmiths were associated with the Crown, and Charles I seized the gold held at the Royal Mint in the Tower of London, making the Royal Mint no longer a safe place to keep gold. The goldsmiths turned to the gentry and aristocracy.

Goldsmiths, the ‘keepers of running cash’ accepted gold in exchange for a receipt. Further, they accepted written instructions to pay back either to the depositor or to a third party, which instruction was the precursor of the cheque or banknote. So Roger could have received written instructions from his father, or his father’s agent or clerk, to receive money from a goldsmith.

But what about those abroad in exile?

In unrelated research, I came across a thesis on Sugar plantations in Jamaica in which the writer cites  documents relating to bills of exchange in the 1650s. A bill of exchange enabled a person from England to send money to his ‘agent’ (in this case, a brother) in Jamaica, or, presumably, anywhere else in the world.

What is a bill of exchange, how does it work? Basically, it too is a forerunner of the modern cheque. It is a written order made by one person (the drawer) to another person (the drawee – in the case of a modern cheque that would be the bank) to pay a third person (the payee). The order is addressed to the drawee, and he has to agree to pay the money to the payee. So, while Roger was in exile, his father could have sent his allowance by a bill of exchange.

A bill of exchange is negotiable. That means that the payee could endorse the order in favour of someone else for them to draw on it. In turn, they could also endorse the order in favour of yet another person and so on ad infinitum. The last person to hold the bill of exchange may claim the amount against the drawee, no matter who else may think he has a claim on it. Which is why it is called ‘negotiable’ and why modern cheques are crossed and marked ‘non negotiable’. Of course a negotiable bill of exchange could be subject to theft, forgery, and so on – I see a plot developing here!

In the case of the plantation, the owner lived in England and sent bills of exchange to his brother in Jamaica. The owner had a network of associates in Jamaica, neighbours, family, friends, one of whom could have been willing to act as the drawee, one who trusted the owner to compensate him. Or perhaps the drawer had already deposited money with the drawee in advance, say, before the drawee left England for Jamaica. The account does not say. The same might be true of those in Charles II’s court in exile. With regard to the goldsmiths, had the drawer already deposited gold with them for use in the future? Or was there some kind of network arrangement between goldsmiths? If anyone knows, please tell me.

So that is the technical bit. Through bills of exchange, or orders to goldsmiths, money could be sent to anywhere in the world, and our characters need not be pining in poverty.

Rebellion - Roger L'Estrange and the Kent Petition by Evelyn Tidman is available now in Print and Kindle or visit her website.

Monday, 19 September 2016


While researching for my latest WIP I wanted to know on what day of the week a certain date in 1644 fell. So I found an online calendar for that year. Easy peasy? Well, no, not exactly. For when I came across some information which gave me a different day and date for that year, and guess what? It did not tally with the online calendar. And that meant a headache for me. Why the discrepancy?

Eventually, it dawned on me that the calendar changed, from Julian to Gregorian.  Actually it was in 1752. Could that be the reason? Was my 1644 online calendar wrong? Never let it be said, but that was the case.

After some digging, I found a Julian calendar. If you want to know, it is here: . And guess what! The dates and days tallied with the historical record.

So why did the calendar change from Julian to Gregorian?

It is all to do with the sun. The Julian calendar, which had been in use since Julius Caesar for whom it was named, did not properly reflect the actual time it takes the Earth to circle the sun. The Julian calendar had a formula which included a leap year every four years. It meant that eventually the vernal equinox and the winter solstice did not occur on the right date. The Gregorian calendar brought it all back into line.

Pope Gregory XIII (hence the name Gregorian, of course!) issued a papal bull in 1582 decreeing that ten days should be dropped when changing to the new calendar. But not every country adopted the new Gregorian calendar immediately. While France, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Austria and Germany (Catholic states) changed in 1582-3, other countries took longer, Turkey, for example waiting until 1926/27. And the longer they waited to change, the more days had to be dropped to bring it into line with the Gregorian Calendar. Britain and most areas of the US and Canada changed in 1752 and had to drop 11 days, while the Turks in 1926/7 had to drop 13 days.

Why the discrepancy? It takes the Earth approximately 365.242189 days to circle the Sun. That is 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 45 seconds. If we did not have a leap year every four years, we would lose almost six hours off our calendar each year. After 100 years, we would be out by 24 days. Notice the word almost. Almost six hours. Not six whole hours. Therefore, a leap year is not every four years. To identify a leap year, therefore, the year must be divisible by 4. If, however, the year can be evenly divided by 100, it is not a leap year, unless it can also be evenly divided by 400, then it is a leap year. (Confusing, ain't it!) So the year 2000 and 2400 are leap years. 1800, 1900, 2200, 2300 and 2500 are not leap years. Got it?

My thanks to John Chapman on Facebook who drew my attention to the following:
“1750 ran from 25 March to 24 March, 365 days
1751 ran from 25 March
 to 31 December, 282 days
1752 ran from 1 January to 31 December, 354 days (it should have been a leap year but, the 29 Feb. and 11 days from the 3 to 13 September were missed out to bring the calendar back in line with the Sun).
1753 ran from 1 January to 31 December, 365 days.
The US was still British at the time so it is the same. Other countries in Europe changed their calendar from the Julian to Gregorian on different dates - some earlier - some later.

He further added:
 The tax year in Britain used to start on Lady Day(25th March) When they changed it they didn't dare shorten the tax year which is why the UK's tax year starts on 6th April now.

His comments sent me off on another tack. Prior to the introduction of the Gregorian calendar in 1582, New year was considered to be 25th March, or as my friend John says above, Lady Day. This has led to great confusion about dates. In the 17th and 18th centuries, dates recorded between 1st January and 24th March were often written thus: 22nd February, 1642/3. If there was no second figure there could be confusion over whether the date was actually in 1642 or 1643 as we view it. This is particularly true of dates of birth or death, leaving one wondering if the person were actually 89 or 90 years old when they died! It took a long while, probably until the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in 1752, for people to make the change properly.

So when you ask Google the day of the week for a certain date, if it is before 1752 beware. They are probably using the Gregorian calendar. Though why anyone would want to know what it should have been according to the Gregorian calendar is beyond me. Don’t we want to know how the people at the time viewed it? That means looking at the Julian calendar.

Now I have some corrections to make! 

Evelyn Tidman is the author of four historical novels.
Her latest work, set in 1648 during the English Civil Wars is out now on Amazon in both Kindle and Print versions.

Wednesday, 10 December 2014


Pinterest seems to be an enigma for many just starting out. And I must admit when I first signed up to the site, I put on a few pics, named one or two boards, and promptly forgot about it. Periodically I'd get an email from Pinterest suggesting boards I could follow, but I wasn't sure how that could be of any benefit to me.

I am assuming you have a Pinterest account, and have signed in. So now what?

What can you use Pinterest for?

You can use it for any pictures that you like, really. It keeps them in one place. You can refer back to them. For example, if you like gardening or are planning to design your own, you might like to collect some pics of gardens that you like or give you ideas. In that way, Pinterest is like a scrap book. In my case, I'm writing about the English Civil War and I want to see action shots, pictures of real people, the clothes they wore, the items they used and so on. It gives me ideas when I am writing, and will give me ideas for a book cover later. I am also fascinated by pirates and sailing ships as I wrote a pirate novel. The Pilgrim Fathers are another favourite. Spin offs are seventeenth century clothes, Tudor clothes, and so on. I am also fascinated by China (the country) and art and cooking - well as you can see the list is almost endless.

How does Pinterest work?

Pinterest is a social media site. Just as with Twitter, Facebook, Linkedin and others, you follow someone, they follow you. Simple. Well, not quite that simple. How do you know who to follow? Probably the easiest way is to put a subject in the Pinterest search box. If you like gardening (let's assume you do), search for 'gardening'. Now you are presented with some options. Click on one, say 'gardening DIY'. Now you are presented with a page of pictures. Hundreds of pictures. You can narrow the field if you like by clicking one of the icons above the pictures, or you can scroll down and look at whatever you want.

Choose a picture. If you hover your cursor over it, you will see the 'pin it' button in the top left hand corner. Like this:
If you click the red Pin it button, you will get something like this:

I don't particularly want a picture related to gardening on my English Civil War board, so I need to change that to something more appropriate, or even create a new one. If you want to share it to Facebook or Twitter click those boxes, but remember next time to un-tick them if you don't want to keep sharing your pins with Facebook and Twitter! It tends to remember the last thing you did in that respect. If you want to add or change the description, do so now. Click 'Pin it'. Job done.

Now what happens next is that the person who put the picture on Pinterest in the first place will get an email saying that you have pinned one of their 'pins'. Now they may decide to follow you. If they do, you can decide to follow them, either all their boards, or just some of them, or one of them. To see all their boards, on the email notification, click on their profile picture, and you will see the options of all or some boards. You can repin other pics from their boards too, if you like.

When you follow someone's board, every time they pin to that board, you get their 'pins' on your feed. To find your feed, click the red 'P' button at the side of the search bar. The feed is updated regularly. You can 'repin' from anything that comes in on your feed, thus starting the cycle of follow and follow back all over again. Be selective when following all of someone's boards. They could have lots, many of which will not be of interest to you. As you get their pins on your feed, you could find a lot of stuff that just clogs up the feed.

That's the basics of how Pinterest works.

How can you use Pinterest for marketing?

You can pin pictures not only from Pinterest, but also from your own computer, or from the net. To do so from your own computer is straightforward. To do so from other sites, you can do one of two things. One, you can download the picture to your computer first. For those who don't know, put the cursor over the picture, right click, click 'save image as', and put it where you can find it again, then upload it to Pinterest. Fine if you want a lot of extra pics on your computer, which rather means you don't need Pinterest then!

The easier way is to get a 'pin it' button. You can try two ways. Put 'pin it button' in the search bar, or go to the question mark at the bottom right of the Pinterest page, and put it in the search there. Follow the instructions. It's very quick and this gives you a red 'P' at the right hand end of your task bar on your internet browser. Now, and here's the clever bit, when you are on the net and you come across a pic you want to pin, put the cursor over the pic, and the 'pin it' button magically appears in the top left hand corner:

Click it. This one is from Twitter, but you can get pins from anywhere on the web, (unless they have managed to disable that.)

Now there is another clever bit. If others have pinned from anywhere on the net, you can find the site they pinned from. This is how.

Go back to the gardening picture that you found on Pinterest, and hover the cursor over it. Now just click on the picture, and suddenly you've got a bigger version of the picture. Now you have some options at the top of the image. You can, of course, 'pin it'. You can 'Like it' (in which case the original pinner gets an email notification), you can 'send it', that is send it to someone who is also on Pinterest, or you can Facebook share. Or, you can go to 'Visit Site':

Clicking Visit Site will take you to the original website. Very useful if you want to know how to put plants in bottles, or if you want a recipe or whatever.

Also very useful if you want to advertise your stuff. Create a board for the items you want to advertise. Start putting pictures on it of anything related to the item. With my pirate book, as I said before, it is anything to do with pirates or ships. Also add a pic of the item itself. You probably don't need me to tell you to go to your own site or selling platform as a member of the public would, and pin a picture of the item of interest from there. Don't upload it from your computer, because it will not take the person looking on Pinterest anywhere. You can add a note about it if you like on the bottom of the picture. You can also add a URL, but it would need to be a shortened one. Periodically, pin a picture of your item of interest again as it will get buried under other pins you've done on that board. Remember, your pins will go out to your followers' feeds, which may cause them to look at your board.

Does Pinterest help in marketing? Yes, definitely, but it is difficult to say how much, as there is no way of monitoring how many people will go to your website or whatever from Pinterest.

I hope this helps all you who are wondering what to do with Pinterest.

Happy pinning!

Evelyn Tidman is the author of:

 Available on Amazon